.NET Scalable Server Push Notifications with SignalR and Redis

Modern web applications sometimes need to notify a logged-in user of an event that occurs on the server. Doing so involves sending data to the browser when the event happens. This is not easily achieved with the standard request-response model used by the HTTP protocol. A notification to the browser needs what’s known as “server push” technology. The server can not “push” a notification unless there is an open, dedicated connection to the client. HTML5 capable client browsers provide the WebSocket mechanism for this, but it is not widely available yet. Most browsers need to mimic push behavior, such as by using a long-polling technique in JavaScript, which simply means making frequent, light, requests to the server similar to AJAX.

To reduce the complexity of coding for the different browser capabilities the excellent SignalR library is available to use in .NET projects – it allows for the transport mechanisms mentioned, and some others. It automatically selects the best (read: performant) transport for the capabilities of the given browser & server combination. Crucially, it provides a means to configure itself so the developer can optimize it for performance and scalability. Using it for server initiated notifications is a “no-brainer”.

Here’s an example of how to set up such a notification mechanism.

To begin with, install required libraries into the project using NuGet.

PM> Install-Package Microsoft.AspNet.SignalR
PM> Install-Package ServiceStack.Redis
PM> Install-Package Microsoft.AspNet.SignalR.Redis

You can see that Redis is used too. This is to allow for web farm scaling. Redis is used to store the SignalR connections so they will always be available and synchronized no matter which web server the SignalR polling request arrives at. This can be achieved (depending on architectural demands) using just one Redis server instance, or by running multiple replicated Redis server instances (this is outside the scope of this example, but it’s easy to set-up).

Next configure SignalR to use Redis as the backing store and map the signalr route. This is done as part of RegisterRoutes (Global.asax.cs).

public static void RegisterRoutes(RouteCollection routes)
      //Use redis for signalr connections - set redis server connection details here
      GlobalHost.DependencyResolver.UseRedis("localhost", 6379, null, "WBSignalR");

      // Register the default SiganlR hubs route: ~/signalr
      // Has to be defined before default route, or it is overidden 
      RouteTable.Routes.MapHubs(new HubConfiguration { EnableDetailedErrors = true });

      //All other mvc routes are defined here            

A SignalR Hub subclass is needed to contain the server side code that both the SignalR client and server will use.

public class NotificationHub : Hub

We also use this class to keep the server aware of the open SignalR connections and – more importantly – which connections relate to which user. The events on the Hub class allow us to keep this up-to-date connection list.

There’s a lot to consider in the code for this class. The full code can be downloaded – NotificationHub.cs. Let’s look at it piece-by-piece.

The first thing is the nested ConnectionDetail class that is used to store the details of the connection in Redis.

public class ConnectionDetail
    public ConnectionDetail() { }

    public string ConnectionId { get; set; }

    public override bool Equals(object obj)
        if (obj == null) return false;
        if (obj.GetType() != this.GetType()) return false;

        return (obj as ConnectionDetail).ConnectionId.Equals(this.ConnectionId);

This class only has one property – the SignalR ConnectionId string. It is better to use a class instead of just the connection id string because we can extend it to store other detail about the connection that later on might affect what message we send, or how it should be treated on the client. For example we could record and store the type of browser associated with the connection (mobile, etc.)

The Equals implementation is needed to check if the connection object is already part of the user’s connection collection or not.

To store the connection detail object in Redis it will be serialized to a byte array using protocol buffers – hence the ProtoBuf attributes. Protocol buffers are a highly performant way of serializing/deserializing data. If you’re not familiar with protobuf.net, you really should check it out.

Next, we use the ServiceStack.Redis client to make all calls to Redis to store the list of connections per user. This is fairly trivial to set-up.

private RedisClient client;

public NotificationHub()
    client = new RedisClient();   //Default connection - localhost:6379

The connection to Redis is made when we want to add or remove a connection from the user’s connection list. Two methods provide that functionality – AddNotificationConnection and RemoveNotificationConnection. They are very similar, so I’ll just explain the first one.

public void AddNotificationConnection(string username, string connectionid)
    string key = String.Format("{0}:{1}", REDIS_NOTIF_PREFIX, username);

            List<ConnectionDetail> list = new List<ConnectionDetail>();
            byte[] data = client.Get(key);
            MemoryStream stream;
            if (data != null)
                stream = new MemoryStream(data);
                list = ProtoBuf.Serializer.Deserialize<List<ConnectionDetail>>(stream);
            ConnectionDetail cdetail = new ConnectionDetail() { ConnectionId = connectionid };
            if (!list.Contains(cdetail))
            stream = new MemoryStream();
            ProtoBuf.Serializer.Serialize<List<ConnectionDetail>>(stream, list);
            stream.Seek(0, SeekOrigin.Begin);
            data = new byte[stream.Length];
            stream.Read(data, 0, data.Length);

            using (var t = client.CreateTransaction())
                t.QueueCommand(c => c.Set(key, data));

The code looks for data in Redis under a unique key which is a combination of the constant prefix and the username. It keyed this way because we can do a fast key lookup, retrieve and lock a small block of data, and so keep the operation atomic, maintaining integrity of the user’s connection list in an environment where the user could open a new connection via a different web server at any time. Keying it on one user, rather than storing a list of connections for all users under one key, also avoids creating locking bottlenecks at scale.

Next, we use the connection events of the Hub class to maintain the user’s list, e.g.:

public override Task OnConnected()
    string Username = GetConnectionUser();

    if (Username != null)
        AddNotificationConnection(Username, Context.ConnectionId);

    return base.OnConnected();

It’s fairly simple – the ConnectionId is taken from the Hub Context object and stored. The main issue here is how to get the user name associated with the connection. The usual HttpContext.User is not available in the SingalR Hub implementation. SignalR uses Owin for it’s Hhttp pipeline, not the usual MVC pipeline, and one of the consequences of this is that SignalR does not load the session (based on the session cookie). However, the browser cookies are sent with the SignalR request. In this case, I use FormsAuthentication in the web application, so the user’s name is stored encrypted in the ticket when the user logs in. GetConnectionUser gets this data from the FormsAuthentication cookie.

private string GetConnectionUser(){
    if (Context.RequestCookies.ContainsKey(FormsAuthentication.FormsCookieName))
        string cookie = Context.RequestCookies[FormsAuthentication.FormsCookieName].Value;

        FormsAuthenticationTicket ticket = FormsAuthentication.Decrypt(cookie);
        return ticket.UserData;

    return null;

The final piece of the Hub code is the function that actually sends the message to the user’s client browser sessions. It will invoke the corresponding ReceiveNotification function in Javascipt on the client.

public bool SendNotificationToUser(string username, string message){

    List list = GetNotificationConnections(username);
    foreach(ConnectionDetail detail in list){

    return false;

To test this, we will call it from a controller action from a test page.


public ActionResult NotfTest(string touser, string message)
    var hubConnection = new HubConnection("http://localhost/SignalR.Notification.Sample");
    IHubProxy hubProxy = hubConnection.CreateHubProxy("NotificationHub");
        hubConnection.Start().Wait(2000); //Async call, 2s wait - should use await in C# 5

        hubProxy.Invoke("SendNotificationToUser", new object[] { touser, message });
    return View("NotfTestSent");

The call is made by the server creating a SignalR hub connection of its own and then sending a request to the Hub’s SendNotificationToUser function (similar to an RPC call).

That’s all the server side code, now for the client side.

To use the client side features of SignalR, we need to include the signalr javascript file, and the server-side generated hubs javascript.

How you want to display the notification in the browser is application dependant, and so up to you. For this, I use the jquery qtip plugin to show it as a tooltip pop-up.

    <!-- Add Script includes -->
    <script src="http://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/qtip2/2.1.1/jquery.qtip.min.js" type="text/javascript"/>
    <script src="@Url.Content("~/Scripts/jquery.signalR-1.1.2.js")" type="text/javascript"/>
    <script src="@Url.Content("~/signalr/hubs")"/>

Near the end of html page (or near the end of the template page html), some javascript makes the connection to the hub once the page is loaded. Finally, define the client-side implementation ReceiveNotification to handle the display of the message.

<script type="text/javascript">

        //Make a connection to the server hubs

        // Declare a proxy to reference the server-side signalr hub class. 
        var notfHub = $.connection.notificationHub;

        //Link a client-side function to the server hub event
        notfHub.client.receiveNotification = function (message) {

            //Use qtip library to show a tooltip message
                content: {
                    text: message,
                    title: 'Notification',
                    button: true
                position: {
                    at: 'top right',
                    my: 'bottom left'
                show: {
                    delay: 0,
                    ready: true,
                    effect: function (offset) {


Voila. Server side push notification to any number of users, no matter how many places each is logged-in, and whatever browser they use.